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  Hardanger Fillings and Kloster Block Shapes
   Hardanger Tutorial 2
  Hardanger Filler Stitches

  © Lorelei Halley 2011 

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ON THIS PAGE:
 1.  Kinds of Blocks & Units
 2.  Names for different kinds of units
 3.  Different possible shapes of kloster units
 4.  Reinforcements for Fabric Bars
  FILLINGS
 5.      Simplest fillings
 6.      Fillings for Solid Center Square units
 7.      Fillings for Empty Center Square units
 8.      Fillings for  Divided Bars units
 9.      Hybrid Unit   
 10.    Larger Holes   

 

                                                                                                                                                          *
 
1. Names for different kinds of kloster blocks and units..  Some names for different shapes just because there is no standard nomenclature. 
kloster block
 kloster block
bar kloster block
 kloster block
kloster unit/kloster motif
 kloster unit

kloster unit or kloster motif
 6 kloster diamond unit
kloster unit or kloster motif
 20 thread kloster unit
A kloster block is a group of satin stitches.   A kloster unit is the entire motif whose edges are bound by kloster blocks and which have some cut spaces in the center for woven or overcast bars and Hardanger fillings.

 

  2. Names for different kinds of units (terminology I use), showing the common cutting pattern.                             *
12 thread unit 12 thread unit, alternate cutting 4 kloster diamond 6 kloster diamond hybrid unit
12 thread unit 12 thread unit, alternate cutting 4 kloster diamond unit 6 kloster diamond unit hybrid unit
20 thread kloster unit cut 8, leave 4, cut 8 20 thread unit: cut 7, leave 6, cut 7 20 thread unit: cut 6, leave 8, cut 6  
20 thread unit 20 thread unit, alternate cutting 20 thread unit, alternate cutting 20 thread unit, alternate cutting  
These occupy the same amount of threads on the fabric and can be substituted for each other. 12 thread unit 12 thread unit, alternate cutting 4 kloster diamond  
These 3 also occupy the same number of threads on the fabric, and can be substituted for each other. 6 kloster diamond 20 thread kloster unit hybrid unit  

 

  3. Different possible shapes of kloster blocks and units                                                                                                                    *
A    12 thread kloster unit

The area enclosed by the kloster blocks contains 12 by 12 fabric threads.  It usually has a solid block in the middle.

Usually cutting is done:
cut 4, leave 4, cut 4
12 thread unit
turret shaped kloster blocks
  
 turret shaped kloster blocks
12 thread unit  12 thread unit
Stitch diagrams for how the klosters were worked, for the row above. 12 thread unit kloster block turret 12thdunitlongbar  kloster blocks - 12 thread unit
shapes of kloster blocks--hill and turret
hill shaped kloster blocks

hill shaped kloster blocks

hill shaped kloster blocks
 
 
  I found the hill/turret/bar description in a pamphlet by Marion Scoular, and I think it useful.  Stitch diagram matches kloster blocks from row above. hill kloster block - 12 thread unit kloster block hill hill variant  
 
 star shaped kloster blocks
star kloster unit
 Stitch diagram for star kloster
   
AA                      
12 thread kloster unit, alternate cutting.
    

With this cutting method, eyelets are usually worked in the corners. There is an empty space in the middle.  Cutting is done:
leave 4, cut 4, leave 4
12 thread unit, alternate cutting
turret
12 thread kloster unit, alternate cutting
turret kloster blocks
   
B
20 thread kloster unit


The area enclosed by the kloster blocks contains 20 by 20 fabric threads.  It has an empty square in the middle.

Cutting is usually done:
cut 4, leave 4, cut 4, leave 4, cut 4

20 thread unit
 turret  4-8-12-8-4
20 thread unit 20 thread unit   
  20 thread kloster unit  
20 thread units, different shapes of kloster blocks.  Any filling can be used that fits into 20 thread unit.
444466668888866664444
turret

444444445676544444444
hill

bar kloster blocks
 
 
 turret 4444666688888

 444444445676544444444
klosterbar
 long bar kloster block
 
 
 444456789 10 11 10 987654444

 444444456787654444444

 
 
C 28 thread kloster unit

The area enclosed by the kloster blocks contains 28 by 28 fabric threads.  It has a solid block in the middle.
28 thread unit
 lace filling stitch
     
D 4 kloster diamond

Each side of the diamond shape has 4 kloster blocks in a diagonal row.  It has an empty square in the middle.
4 kloster diamond 4 kloster diamond 4 kloster diamond 4 kloster diamond
  crossed bars filling in 4 kloster diamond      
E 6 kloster diamond

Each side of the diamond shape has 6 kloster blocks in a diagonal row.  It has an empty square in the middle.
6 kloster diamond 6 kloster diamond 6 kloster diamond small webs
F
8 kloster diamond
   
G hybrid unit with different cutting

This unit occupies the same space on the cloth that a 6 kloster diamond does, but the 13 stitch kloster across the top causes a solid block in the center, instead of an empty space.  So it requires different fillings.  Any filling for a 12 thread unit will fit in the middle of the space.
hybrid unit hybrid unit hybrid unit                            
                                
hybrid unit

 Rectangles 
   Can be different sizes
 Horizontal strip unit 
   Can be different sizes
 Diagonal strip unit 
     3 squares high
 Diagonal strip unit
     5 squares high 
   
 
 Triangle 
     Can be different sizes
 
 Diagonal strip and triangle


 4. Reinforcements for fabric bars                                                                                                                                   *   
 The first two rows show basic ways to reinforce the fabric threads that remain after the cutting is done.  Section 5 shows the simplest, most common fillings.  I will add more as I discover them and work samples.


 fabric bars
*
needle woven bars
 woven bars
needle woven bars with loop picots
 woven bars with loop picots
needle woven bars with post stitch picots
 woven bars with bullion picots (post stitch picots)
uneven woven bars
 uneven woven bars
overcast bars
 overcast bars
 wrapped bars
 divided bars divided woven bars
 divided woven bars
divided wrapped (overcast) bars
 overcast divided bars
     


    Fillings                                                                                                                               *


Hardanger Lace Fillings: 
Below are some of the ways to reinforce the bars and decorate the cut out areas of Hardanger motifs with filling stitches.

 Hardanger Lace Fillings

Hardanger fillings fall into a few categories:

 

  5. Simplest, most common, fillings                                                                                                                   *
 The simplist fillings dove's eye
 dove's eye
       
  dove's eye
 dove's eyes
dove's eye with post stitch picots (knotted picots) dove's eye and loop picots    
 
 
square filet
 square filet
square filet twisted square filet
 twisted square filet
twisted square filet Put an extra twist on each leg to make the square smaller.  Work with loose tension for best result.  Also called oblique filling stitch.
  small webs
 crossed twisted bars with small web

 The filling is made with one long thread.  I showed it in 2 colors to make it easier to see the circle on top of the crossed bars.
     

 

                                                                                                                                                                                *

  6. Fillings requiring a solid square in the middle.  These fit into 12 thread units, 20 thread units or hybrid units.  They require 4 empty squares with a solid square in the center.  Rows below show fillings based on twisted bars put in with a needle.  There are 1, 2 or 3 or 4 bars, crossed bars, and branched bars (Y bars).  Then additional layers of needle fillings can be worked on top of or incorporating the twisted bars.



one twisted bar
1 twisted bar twisted bar single    
one twisted bar plus 1 twisted bar with web
 back stitched wheel, ribbed wheel 
1 twisted bar with backstitched web 1 twisted bar with web
 darned wheel   
  woven web on 1 bar
 darned wheel 


festoon filling uses 1 twisted bar
 festoon filling
 1 bar + festoon + web
 festoon filling with large web
Edelweiss filling
 edelweiss filling
  twisted bar with buttonholed bar crossing it


2 twisted bars
2 twisted bars      
  2 twisted  bars with web
 2 twisted bars with large web
2 bars woven
 2 twisted bars woven
     


3 twisted bars
3 twisted bars 3 bars with web
 3 twisted bars with large web
3 twisted bars woven
 3 twisted bars woven
   


4 twisted bars
I don't have examples yet.         


crossed twisted bar
crossed bars
 crossed twisted bars
     
  crossed bars with small webs
 crossed twisted bars with small webs

The filling is made with one long thread.  I showed it in 2 colors to make it easier to see the circle on top of the crossed bars.
crossed bars with small webs and large web
 crossed twisted bars with small and large webs
   
  circle filling lies on top of crossed bars
 circle filling
 Made with
  crossed twisted bars with
  dove's eyes and
  a darned circle.
     


branched bars (twisted Y)
branched bars facing outward
 branched twisted bars,
 or "y bars"
     
  branched bars with small webs
 branched bars with small webs
branched bars with small webs & large web
 "y bars "with small webs and large webs.
     
  branched bars facing inward
 branched twisted bars
 y bars
       
  branched bar + loop picot
y bars with loop picots on woven bars
       

Other fillings for 12 thread units.
buttonholed ring
 buttonholed bar
 buttonholed ring
 buttonholed circle
     

 


 7. Fillings for any unit with an empty square in the middle:                            *

   a single empty square.
Fillings for 4 kloster diamonds.  Any filling for a single empty square, which does not have directionality, will work. crossed bars
 crossed twisted bars
square filet
 square filet
darned square (woven square)
 woven square
empty circle: dove's eye+square filet
 hollow circle filling.  Work dove's eye on top of a square filet.
  dove's eye dove's eye square filet square filet   circle filling circle filling
  crossed twisted bar +
  dove's eye +
  woven circle
Alternate cutting:
This group of fillings requires cutting a 12 thread unit in different places.  Therefore they cannot be interchanged with other fillings for 12 thread units.
12 thread unit with corner eyelets      

 

 Fillings for 20 thread units (or larger) and 6 kloster diamonds, or for any with at least 9 empty squares, and an empty square in the middle.  20 thread unit has 20 fabric threads inside the area defined by the kloster blocks.  Each block is 4 threads. Each bar is 4 threads.            

klst-bar-klst-bar-klst
  4---4---4---4---4                5 times 4 = 20

 5 hole area   20 thread unit             5 hole area  6 kloster diamond
Fillings for 20 thread kloster unit or 6 kloster diamond. 
woven 3/4 web
 darned filling stitch
 or 3/4 darned wheel
You can put dove's eye or square filet in center square.
blanket stitch flower
 blanket stitch flower
  20 thread unit

Fillings for the 20 thread unit also fit into a 6 kloster diamond.

 dove's eye
6 kloster diamond unit
 square filet
empty circle: dove's eye + square filet
 hollow circle filling
 The filling can be arranged as the square filet left.
 
         
 Filling for any rectangular unit 28 threads or larger. Also works in a 20 thread unit.  lacefillingstitch      
         


 8. Fillings for divided bars.  The fabric threads left after cutting can be divided and then reinforced with overcasting or needleweaving.       bk   
And there are certain fillings which use these divided bars as a base.  Divided bars can be worked on any size unit, but not all fillings will work well in all units.                 


divided fabric bars
divided woven bars divided overcast bars divided woven bars with dove's eye
 Dove's eyes will work in any size or shape unit.
 


more divided fabric bars
divided overcast bars with Maltese cross
Maltese cross and branched bars need 4 empty squares around a central solid square.  Also called Greek cross.
divided overcast bars with Maltese cross
Maltese cross works best on overcast bars.
divided woven bars with branched bars
Branched twisted bar facing inward can be worked on woven or overcast bars.  Also called rosette filling.
 
Pull the Y a little to make the divided bars curve and open up a little space, as at left.


 9. Hybrid unit
                                                                                                                                            
This type has a 13 stitch kloster across the top, 2 normal klosters on the diagonal, and another 13 stitch kloster on the side.
                       
Fillings for 20 thread units  will not fit into the units at right, because they do not have an empty square in the middle, but a solid block.  Any filling from with a solid center block will fit into a hybrid unit.
hybrid unit 1bar + large web circle filling  


 10. How to get larger spaces for fillings -- Alternate cutting for 20 thread unit                                     *
Some of the fillings for 12 thread units have so many elements added on top of each other that the decoration is hard to see, even if worked in a much finer thread than usual.  These will be shown off to better advantage if worked in a larger space, such as a 20 thread unit in which the cutting is done differently.  The fillings for 12 thread units have a solid square in the center, surrounded by 4 empty squares.  They can be worked on any larger size unit which has a solid square in the center.
usual cutting for 20 thread unit
usual cutting
cut 4, leave 4, cut 4, leave 4, cut 4
cut 8, leave 4, cut 8
 Alternate
 cut 8, leave 4, cut 8    
20 thread unit: cut 7, leave 6, cut 7
 Alternate
 cut 7 leave 6 cut 7
20 thread unit: cut 6, leave 8, cut 6
 Alternate
 cut 6, leave 8, cut 6
 
 
circle filling in 20 thread unit, alternate cutting
 circle filling

Edelweiss filling
 edelweiss filling
 
5b. You can get a larger hole by using the 7 stitches over
6 threads system
                                             *
7 stitches over 6 threads-hybrid unit
     
H8 4 thread + 6 thread systems Compare the 2 systems:
    5 st over 4 threads LEFT and
    7 st over 6 threads RIGHT
festoon+largeweb
 festoon filling with large web
circle filling 7 stitches over 6 threads system
 circle filling
   
         


  11. Fillings for narrow diagonal bands.  I don't have examples yet.
       
       

Interesting fillings I have found in online photos:   http://www.flickr.com/photos/30406806@N07/sets/72157624870958504/with/4953643691/

I will add more fillings as I find them and work examples.

Created August 13, 2011.         Last edited:   06/20/14             Contact me at lhalley@bytemeusa.com